Notice en espagnole (6 pages)
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Manual n° 3
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Manual n° 4
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Manual n° 5
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Manual n° 6
History of Aerobatics
IN THE comparatively short history of aviation, formation aerobatics has
developed from groups of individual biplanes flying together into the
mirror-image team performances of advanced jet aircraft, as exemplified by The
Only 63 years ago five SE5As of the Royal Aircraft Establishment introduced
the first formation spin to amaze the public.
Innovations and experiments followed rapidly as different aircraft were
designed and new pilots came along to attempt previously untried manoeuvres.
In 1926 nine Gloster Grebes of No. 25 Squadron flew in sections of three,
while the public listened to the leader's commands broadcast over loudspeakers.
A year later No. 41 Squadron's team taxied off to give their display to
music. It was Siskins belonging to No. 43 Squadron that flew past the crowds in
1930 with their wings linked by breakable cord.
By then smoke, special paint schemes and synchro pair manoeuvres had all
made their debuts - adding to the interest and excitement of many air shows.
The paint markings on the upper wings of Gypsy Moths were essential for the
public to tell when these pioneering aircraft were inverted!
In comparison with aerobatics today, the displays were extemely simple, with
No. 25 Squadron's three Hawker Furies being among the first to introduce
formation changes in 1935. They were also the first team to display abroad.
If may seem incredible to the generation brought up on the speed and
spectacle of The Red Arrows, but there was considerable pessimism after the
second world war over the suitability of jet aircraft for formation aerobatics.
However in 1947 the first Royal Air Force team of three Vampires was formed
from the Odiham Fighter Wing. The following year a team from No. 54 Squadron
visited the USA and Canada.
The success of the Vampire ensured the rapid return of formation aerobatics
to the top of the attraction stakes at air shows, and they dominated the scene
until 1950, when the Gloster Meteor rose to become acclaimed as the ideal
aerobatic aircraft. This in turn was supplanted by the Hawker Hunter.
Treble One Squadron (No. 111) in particular
was associated with the Hunter, especially once they had become the premier
team of the Royal Air Force in 1957, flying their famous all-black aircraft.
It was the French who first described this team as "The Black Arrows", and
they later also became known as "the fathers of modern formation aerobatics".
They inspired a completely new approach to display work, devising practical
patterns in the sky that were complimentary to the swept back shape of the new
jets, rather than trying to re-create pre-war formations intended for box-wing
All this time aerobatics was only a secondary occupation for fighter
squadrons and few teams were together for very long.
However The Black Arrows maintained their position as the premier team until
1961, and this continuity clearly enabled the pilots to produce an integrated,
polished performance, where many machines operated as one.
They are probably best remembered for their 22 Hunter formation loop, flown
in 1958 for the first time in history.
The Blue Diamonds, who succeeded The Black Arrows in 1961, further developed
the aerobatic professionalism of the Royal Air Force
(although still secondary to their operational role) with the division of their
16-ship team into two, so that there was always a formation "on stage" in front
of the crowd.
In 1963 the last operational Royal Air Force team on nine Lightnings, The
Firebirds, took to the air. From then on teams were to be drawn by selection
from training units since it was no longer possible to justify the expense of
maintaining fighter squadrons with this extra work load.
The Central Flying School, an obvious contender to produce a team, came up
with The Red Pelicans in 1964. These six Hunting Jet Provosts turned out to be
a far from inspiring sight after the speed and thunder of the Hunters and
However at the Society of British Aircraft Companies show at Farnborough
that year the Central Flying School decided to fly a second aerobatic team as
well. This was made up of five Hawker Siddeley Gnats from No. 4 Flying Training
School at Valley, led by Flight Lieutenant Jones, and known by their call sign,
The combination of this man and this aircraft proved to be a catalyst in the
development of formation aerobatics within the Royal Air Force.
Arrival of the Hawk
PROJECT Hawk began in the late 1960s. The original concept was that of an
advanced weapons jet trainer to replace several types of aircraft in use, and
also the possible employment in front line combat roles. Its very large
warload, radius of action and loiter time capabilities made it a highly potent
aircraft, capable of surviving in tomorrow's hostile environment.
In the training role the Hawk was to meet the demand of the Royal Air Force
to replace several different types in use. Before the Hawk entered service with
the Royal Air Force in 1976 the jet training task required three different
types of aircraft - the Jet Provost for basic training, the Gnat for advanced
flying training and the Hunter for weapons instruction.
The Hawk's performance after introduction was so successful that it allowed
the withdrawal of the Gnat and Hunter fleets from Advanced Flying Schools one
year earlier than planned.
The Hawk embodies all the skill and experience that British Aerospace has
developed over many decades in designing and producing high performance
and has met all the Royal Air Force's uncompromising requirements for
performance and economy of operation.
A rugged structure enables it to carry ordnance exceeding 6,500lb - more
warload than any aircraft in its class. Its low level performance ensures
penetration and escape from hostile defence systems.
The Hawk can also fulfil an effective role as a secondary air defence
fighter, armed with a combination of Aden 30mm gun, wing-mounted and centre
pylon air-to-air and long range sea-skimming anti-ship missiles. Its
exceptional manoeuvreability, good climb rate, quick reaction time and long
endurance enable it to provide effective air defence at low and medium levels.
Deliveries of the Hawk T. Mk1 began in November 1976 to No. 4 Advanced Flying
Training School, part of RAF Support Command, at RAF Valley, and late in 1977
to Tactical Weapons Unit at RAF Brawdy in South Wales which is an integral part
of RAF Strike Command.
The Red Arrows received their 11 red Hawks in November 1979 and were able to
start the 1980 season with aircraft that were to break all records.
Aerobatics and Manoeuvres
IN the very early days of aviation, at the turn of this century, aircraft
merely defied gravity - a momentuous enough achievement. Yet in no time at all
increased mechanical manoeuvreability and growing pilot expertise produced the
first arobatics, loops, circles, dives and spins.
Formation aerobatics came with the developing aircraft industry since like
minded individuals of a dare-devil disposition were then presented with
identical models with which to demonstrate their combined skills.
The early Royal Air Force recognised there was far more to it than pure
exhibitionism, and included aerobatics in pilot training from the start. It is
now regarded as an essential step in giving a pilot complete confidence in
himself and his aircraft. From this formation aerobatics naturally follows,
instilling into each individual the added factor of confidence in his leader
and other team members.
One topic that was ever present in the minds of the Red Arrow's pilots
during the 1979 season was the change over to the British Aerospace Hawk, the
Royal Air Force's replacement for the Gnat which for over 15 years had flown
almost 1,300 venues.
The Red Arrows' first display with the Hawk
was at Seywell on April 6, 1980 at the start of a successful season of 119
performances. All the excellent flying qualities of the Hawk come together at
their best in aerobatics. The Hawk is truly a pilot's aircraft, combining
precise and responsive control with great agility, good natural stall warning,
freedom from sudden departure, unrestricted engine handling throughout the
normal flight envelope and superb view.
It is cleared for operation between 8g and -4g and is remarkable for its low
induced drag, permitting sustained level turns of 6g at 450 knots at low
altitude, and prolonged turns at 8g with only modest rates of descent or speed
Flying with The Red Arrows
RED ARROWS is a flight simulator based on the Hawk and the formation flying of
the Red Arrows. For most people it is the closest that they will come to the
fun and excitement of flying with the nine man team.
Red Arrows consists of two separate programs. The first offers the chance to
practice individual manoeuvres, while the second gives you the chance to fly in
a display as suggested by the Red Arrow pilots.
The controls and instruments are described later, but it should be noted
that during formation flying, apart from Red Leader, the Red Arrows make very
little reference to the instruments. This does not mean that this flight
simulator is a simple case of follow the leader. You must keep exactly in
formation or your rating at the end will be poor.
You will need to accelerate rapidly near the top of loops as Red Leader goes
over the top and is on his way down before you reach the top (see the Hints
section on Page 16). You will have the problem of keeping up when you are
flying on the outside of a circle with Red Leader setting the pace from a
You will encounter these, and many more difficulties, as you try to keep
your exact position in the formation.
Length 11.85m 38ft 11in
Wing span 9.39m 30ft 10in
Height 4.00m 13ft 2in
Wing area 16.689m.sq. 179.64ft.sq
Max. dive speed
(at altitude) Mach 1.2
Max. level speed 1040km/hr 560kt
Max. altitude 15240m 50000ft
Max. warload 3100kg 6800lb
(no fuel, no crew) 3635kg 8013lb
Max. take-off weight 8400kg 18520lb
Internal 1705 litres 375 Imp gal
External (max.) 1725 litres 380 Imp gal
turbofan. Max. sea
level static thrust 25.4kN 5700lb
1. BRAKE WARNING LIGHT . . . Shows red if the brakes are on. Note that the
brakes can be applied to varying degrees, and this light shows if the brakes
are on even slightly. Note that in the air the brakes are the air brakes and on
the ground they are the wheel brakes.
2. FLAPS WARNING LIGHT . . . Lets you know if the flaps are up or down (red is
3. UNDERCARRIAGE WARNING LIGHT . . . Gives you the state of the undercarriage
(red is down).
4. THRUST BAR . . . Tells you the thrust of the engines.
5(a) ASI . . . Air speed indicator shows your air speed.
(b) VSI . . Vertical speed indicator shows your speed of ascent or descent
(the arrow indicates up or down).
(c) ALT . . Altimeter shows your altitude.
6. MULTI-SCREEN . . . You can select:-
(a) FORMATION/RADAR . . . Shows your position relative to the rest of the
squadron (needed if you loose them and cannot see them through the
cockpit). If you are close to the squadron, your position in the formation
can be determined. The number printed at the bottom indicates your
vertical height difference with the rest of the squadron.
(b) VIEW . . . Shows a picture of your manoeuvre.
7. ARTIFICIAL HORIZON . . . Gives you a picture and digital readout of the bank
of the aircraft.
8. ROLL BAR . . . Shows the inclination of the aircraft. The bar changes colour
as you go over 90 degrees.
9. MESSAGES . . . Messages from Red Leader will scroll across here.
ALL the controls may be activated from the keyboard and can be chosen by the
pilot at the start of the game. If you prefer not to choose your own keys the
default keys for your computer will be shown as you load the program.
If you prefer to use joysticks, eight functions can be obtained. These are:
Without "FIRE" pressed -
FORWARD and BACK ................................................. ELEVATORS
LEFT and RIGHT .................................................... AILERONS
With "FIRE" pressed -
FORWARD and BACK .................................................... THRUST
LEFT and RIGHT ...................................................... BRAKES
The following diagrams will make the joystick functions more clear:
Bank | Bank
left <------+------> right
Brakes | Brakes
up <------+------> down
Whether you are using keyboard or joystick, you will need to select keys to use
for the following:
THRUST+BRAKES . . . for some manoeuvres the Red Arrows fly with the brakes on.
This button builds thrust against brakes so that you continue with the same
overall thrust. Using a brake or thrust control switches this effect off. See
the Hints page for the need for this feature.
FLAPS . . . One key toggles the flaps up and down.
UNDERCARRIAGE . . . Another one key toggle.
RUDDER . . . The Red Arrows rarely use this, so no display of amount of rudder
is provided. You need to select three keys - one for left, one for right and
one to centralise the rudder.
1. Red Leader is often flying at over 90 per cent thrust. For many manoeuvres,
you will need more.
2. Thrust is slow to build up. For more instant thrust, build the brakes
against the thrust, so that as the brakes are released instant thrust is
3. Follow the plane(s) formation in front, keeping yourself in the position
shown in the diagrams on Pages 20 and 21.
4. To change formation, fast acceleration or deceleration may be needed (see
5. Most manoeuvres take place at heights of between 250 and 5000 feet.
6. The typical speed at the bottom of a loop is 350 knots.
7. If you are not sure how to move from one formation to another, remember that
as RED 8 you are mirroring the movements of RED 9. Watch what he is doing in
the multi-screen display.
8. If you stall the Hawk, the plane's automatic stall recovery system will try
to recover you.
9. If no option is selected from the menu, after a short while the program will
enter the demonstration mode. This gives you the ideal chance to watch how you
should be flying.
WITH the first program you can practice any of the manoeuvres illustrated on
Pages 18 and 19 by selecting the appropriate one from a menu. On the second
program you will be expected to fly the full display.
As you do the display, messages from Red Leader will scroll across the
bottom of the screen. Each will be followed by the word GO, which is the signal
to move into a new formation. Two numbers will follow, which is the
acknowledgement from the team.
You will be expected to follow the formations as RED 8. Study them well and
get plenty of practice using the practice program.
Then when you feel you have acquired the required skills on each manoeuvre
try to keep with the team in a perfect display.
[Diagrams of Arrival - Big Nine Loop and Pyramid Roll manoeuvres - see
[Diagrams of Eagle/Manhattan Loop Viggen Flypast and Concorde Flypast
manoeuvres - see redarrows_manoeuvres.jpg]
AS you perform the manoeuvres illustrated, you will see commands for formation
changes scroll across the display panel. At the command GO, follow position 8
into the next formation, as shown below. You will see the team acknowledge the
order (by giving the figures in brackets).
[Diagram of formations - see redarrows_formations.jpg]
[Diagram of formations - see redarrows_formations.jpg]
DATABASE Software would like to thank the pilots and other members of the Royal
Air Force aerobatic team, the Red Arrows, for their help and advice during the
design and writing of the Red Arrows computer program. Part of the proceeds of
the sale of this program are to go to RAF charities chosen by the Red Arrows
to win a
One place on this trip of a lifetime
will be awarded monthly up to and
including January, 1986.
Demonstrate your flying skills in this superb simulation and reserve your own
VIP seat for a weekend with the Red Arrows
Winners will visit the wartime home of the Dambusters, meet members of the
crack aerobatic team and be photographed at the controls of a Hawk - with
overnight accommodation at a luxury hotel.
All that is needed is to achieve the highest score submitted in any month
until the competition ends on January 31, 1986.
The competition is to be a true test of skill, with the slogan required only
being taken into account in the event of a tie.
The validity of an individual's recorded score can be automatically checked
against the "debriefing time" to ensure no false claims can be made.
Age (if under 18) ______________________
Tel. (Day) _____________________________
Highest Score __________________________
Debriefing Time Shown __________________
Write a slogan in no more than ten words
describing the Red Arrows.
POST TO: Red Arrows Contest, Database Software, Europa House, Chester Road,
Hazel Grove, Stockport SK7 5NY.
Rules of the Competition
* The competition officially ends on January 31, 1986.
* All entries will be judged in the month after they are received.
* Monthly winners will be notified by the end of the month following receipt of
* Contestants must answer ALL questions on the entry form and complete the
* Completed entry forms should be sent to Database Software, Europa House, 68
Chester Road, Hazel Grove, Stockport SK7 5NY in an envelope clearly marked
"Red Arrows Competition".
* All decisions of the judges are final and no correspondence can be entered
* Winners will be notified of the date of their weekend with the Red Arrows.