UTILITY -> Other
© Timatic Systems Ltd (1986)
Amstrad BBC BASIC Version 2.30


2.64 Mo
Manual n° 1 in PDF format
Notice en anglais (524 pages)
Transféré par sPOKE

Manual n° 2

BBC BASIC for the Amstrad Colour Computers Preliminary Information (C) Copyright R.T.Russell 1986 1. Introduction This preliminary documentation accompanies the evaluation copy of Amstrad BBC BASIC (Z80). It should be read in conjunction with the manual for the Torch version of BBC BASIC (Z80), as only those features which differ substantially from the Torch version are documented here. If you do not have a manual for the Torch version this can be obtained from M-Tec (UK). This version of BBC BASIC will run on the Amstrad CPC664 and CPC6128 machines, and also on the CPC464 if fitted with the optional disk drive. It will not run on the PCW8256 and PCW8512 word processors. It runs under CP/M 2.2 or CP/M Plus and is supplied on a 3" compact diskette. To enter CP/M insert a suitable CP/M System disk and type: |CPM<return> To run BBC BASIC insert the enclosed disk (or a copy) and type: A>BBCBASIC<return> After a couple of seconds the system will reply: Amstrad BBC BASIC Version 2.30 (C) Copyright R.T.Russell 1986 > 2. Memory utilisation BBC BASIC requires about 17K of code space and 3K of private RAM. When run under CP/M 2.2 (e.g. on the CPC464 or CPC664) PAGE is set by default to &5000 and HIMEM is set to &9F00, giving nearly 20K of user RAM for program, variables and stack. If characters 128-255 are neither defined nor used by the BASIC program to be run, PAGE may be lowered to &4C00 giving an extra 1K of user RAM; however this is not recommended. When run under CP/M Plus (i.e. on the CPC6128) PAGE is set to &4800 and HIMEM to &EE00, giving 41.5K of user RAM. PAGE must not be lowered by the user. Note that use of *EXEC and *SPOOL irreversibly lowers HIMEM to make room for the appropriate file control block. As this space is not returned when the *EXEC or *SPOOL file is finished with, these facilities should be used sparingly if excessive loss of memory space is to be avoided. If required, PAGE and HIMEM can be re-initialised by restarting the BASIC (CALL &100). 3. Commands, statements and functions The syntax of BASIC commands, statements and functions is in most cases identical to that of the Torch version (2.3). The few differences are documented here: ADVAL The Amstrad machines do not have a true analogue input, instead they support simple contact-closure style joysticks. ADVAL with a zero or positive argument returns a 16-bit integer corresponding to the state of these joysticks as follows: Bit 13: Joystick 0 fire button 1 Bit 12: Joystick 0 fire button 2 Bit 11: Joystick 0 right Bit 10: Joystick 0 left Bit 9: Joystick 0 down Bit 8: Joystick 0 up Bit 5: Joystick 1 fire button 1 Bit 4: Joystick 1 fire button 2 Bit 3: Joystick 1 right Bit 2: Joystick 1 left Bit 1: Joystick 1 down Bit 0: Joystick 1 up ADVAL with a negative argument returns the number of free spaces in the sound buffers as follows: ADVAL(-6) Sound channel 1 ADVAL(-7) Sound channel 2 ADVAL(-8) Sound channel 3 CALL This command has a special function when addresses in the range &FF00 to &FFFF are used. See the section on Operating System Interface for details. CLG This does not move the graphics cursor to (0,0), contrary to the information given in the Torch manual. EDIT A single-line editor is provided. The following control functions are available: LEFT move the cursor one character position to the left RIGHT move the cursor one character position to the right UP move the cursor up one line, or to the start of the line DOWN move the cursor down one line, or to the end of the line CTRL/LEFT move the cursor to the start of the line CTRL/RIGHT move the cursor to the end of the line CLR delete the character at the current cursor position DEL backspace and delete the character to the left of the cursor CTRL/U delete all characters to the left of the cursor CTRL/X delete all characters from the cursor to the end of the line Note that the COPY key is active at all times, as when running Amstrad BASIC. SHIFT with the cursor keys moves the copy (read) cursor. ENVELOPE This statement is implemented as far as possible to be compatible with the BBC Micro. However, although the hardware sound capabilities of the machines are similar the Operating System support is somewhat different. There are therefore differences in the detailed operation of the ENVELOPE statement. In particular there is no "release" section of the amplitude envelope and the pitch envelope may not give identical results. The most important effect is that no sound is produced beyond the duration specified in the SOUND statement, whereas on the BBC Micro the sound continues indefinitely depending on the specification of the release phase of the amplitude envelope. Envelope numbers may be in the range 1 to 15. INKEY The key codes used in conjunction with the INKEY function with a negative argument (test a specific key) are those given in the Amstrad User Instructions (e.g. Chapter 7 Page 23 of the CPC6128 manual). For example, INKEY(-47) tests whether the SPACE bar is depressed. LIST When using the (default) VDU emulator (*OPT 0), LISTing may be paused by holding down the CTRL and SHIFT keys together. "Paged" mode may also be entered by typing CTRL/N (VDU 14) whereupon the screen will wait at the end of each page until a SHIFT key is pressed. Paged mode is turned off by typing CTRL/O (VDU 15). Beware: Pressing ESC whilst pausing a listing with CTRL and SHIFT will reset the computer! MODE The available display modes are as follows: Mode Graphics Text Colours 0 640 x 200 80 x 25 2 1 320 x 200 40 x 25 4 2 160 x 200 20 x 25 16 3 640 x 200 80 x 25 2 4 320 x 200 40 x 25 4 5 160 x 200 20 x 25 16 6 320 x 200 40 x 25 4 7 320 x 200 40 x 25 4 Modes 0 & 3 are identical, as are modes 1, 4, 6 & 7 and modes 2 & 5. No attempt is made to emulate the BBC Micro's Teletext mode (MODE 7). In this respect the Amstrad machines behave more like the Acorn Electron. A MODE change does not switch off paged mode (VDU 14). MOVE The range of coordinates corresponding to positions on the screen is 0 to 1279 in the x-direction and 0 to 799 in the y-direction. PLOT The range of coordinates corresponding to positions on the screen is 0 to 1279 in the x-direction and 0 to 799 in the y-direction. The following PLOT codes are implemented: PLOT 0 Move to a position relative to the last point. PLOT 1 Draw line relative in graphics foreground colour. PLOT 2 Draw line relative in logical inverse colour. PLOT 3 Draw line relative in graphics background colour. PLOT 4 Move to an absolute position. PLOT 5 Draw line absolute in graphics foreground colour. PLOT 6 Draw line absolute in logical inverse colour. PLOT 7 Draw line absolute in graphics background colour. PLOT 8-15 As PLOT 0-7 except that the last point is plotted twice. PLOT 16-63 These codes are NOT IMPLEMENTED. PLOT 64-71 As PLOT 0-7 but only a single point is plotted. PLOT 72-79 These codes are NOT IMPLEMENTED. PLOT 80-87 Plot and fill a triangle formed by the specfied position and the last two points visited. PLOT 88-95 These codes are NOT IMPLEMENTED. SOUND Although the sound generator has a "noise" capability, it has not been possible within the constraints of the Amstrad Operating System to implement this in a way compatible with the BBC Micro's SOUND statement. Consequently the use of channel zero has no effect. The four parameters behave as follows: SOUND channel,loudness,pitch,duration channel Only bits 0, 1 & 4 have any effect. Bits 0 & 1 are the channel number (1- 3). If bit 4 is set, the sound queue is flushed and the new sound is started immediately. loudness Values from -15 to -1 select a sound of amplitude 15 to 1 respectively with constant pitch, zero selects silence and values from 1 to 15 select an envelope (see ENVELOPE statement). pitch This selects the (initial) pitch as with the BBC Micro. The pitch can be varied only in semitone increments, i.e. the least significant 2 bits are ignored; Middle C is 52. duration Values from 0 to 254 select the duration of the sound, in units of approximately 1/20 second. The value -1 causes an indefinite sound, which can be stopped only by issuing another SOUND statement with the "flush" bit set or by pressing the ESCape key. USR USR has a special function when addresses in the range &FF00 to &FFFF are used. See the section on the OS Interface for details. 4. The Operating System Interface The following resident Operating System ("star") commands are implemented. They may be accessed directly (e.g. *BYE) or via the OSCLI statement (OSCLI "BYE"). See the Torch manual for more details. *BYE Returns control to CP/M. *CPM This is synonymous with *BYE. *. [filespec] *DIR [filespec] List the files which match the (optional) ambiguous filespec. If the filespec is omitted, all .BBC files are listed. "Read only" files are marked with an asterisk. *DRIVE d: Select drive d as the default drive for subsequent disk operations. *ERA filespec *ERASE filespec Delete all files matching the ambiguous filespec. *ESC [ON|OFF] *ESC OFF disables the abort action of the ESCape key; after *ESC OFF the ESCape key simply returns the ASCII code ESC (27). *ESC ON, or *ESC, restores the normal action of the ESCape key. *EXEC filespec Accept console input from the specified file instead of from the keyboard. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *KEY n [string] Redefine a function key to return the specified string. The key number n is from 0 to 31; note that key 10 is the full point (.) in the cursor cluster, key 11 is the ENTER key and key 12 is CTRL/ENTER. The string may contain the "escape" symbol | in order to insert non- printing characters. For example, |M indicates CR (carriage return), !? indicates DEL, || indicates the character | itself and |! causes bit 7 of the following character to be set. If the string is enclosed in quotes (which is optional) |" allows the character " to be included in the string. If there is insufficient room for the string, the "Bad string" error will occur and the key will be loaded with as much of the string as would fit. *LOAD filespec aaaa Loads the specfied file into memory at hexadecimal address aaaa. The load address must be specified. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *LOCK filespec Set the specified file to "read-only" status. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *OPT [n] Select the destination for console output characters. The value n is in the range 0 to 3, as follows: 0 Send characters to the VDU emulator (see later) 1 Send characters to the auxiliary output 2 Send characters to the printer output 3 Send characters to the standard console output *OPT 0 is the default setting. Note that all characters sent to the console output are vectored with *OPT, there is no filtering of graphics commands etc. For example, the statement COLOUR 3 in a program will cause the bytes 17 and 3 to be sent to the device selected by *OPT. *REN newfile=oldfile *RENAME newfile=oldfile These commands rename oldfile as newfile. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *RESET Resets the disk system. When used with CP/M 2.2 this command should be issued after a disk is changed. This need not be done with CP/M Plus (although it will do no harm). *SAVE filespec aaaa bbbb *SAVE filespec aaaa +llll This command saves a specified range of memory to disk. The address range is specified either as start address (aaaa) and end address +1 (bbbb) or as start address (aaaa) and length (llll). If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *SPOOL [filespec] Copy all subsequent console output to the specified file. If the filename is omitted, any current spool file is closed and spooling is terminated. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *TYPE filespec Type the specified file to the VDU screen. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *UNLOCK filespec Set the specified file to "read/write" status. If the extension is omitted, .BBC is assumed. *| comment This is a comment line. Anything following the | is ignored. In addition to the commands listed above, the OS Interface module provides facilities for reading the character at the current text cursor position and for reading the dot pattern of a given font character. These are accessed by a USR or CALL to addresses &FFF4 and &FFF1 respectively: The character at the current text cursor position is returned by: (USR(&FFF4) AND &FF00) DIV 256 The dot pattern of a character can be read as follows: DIM par 8 X%=par MOD 256:Y%=par DIV 256 ?par=character CALL &FFF1 where the character pattern will be returned in the eight bytes par?1 to par?8. The reason for the rather "obscure" methods of accessing these functions is to maintain maximum compatibility with the similar functions provided on the BBC Microcomputer. A user's machine code program may access the OSRDCH, OSWRCH, OSKEY and OSCLI routines by using vectors provided in page 1: OSRDCH: call &109 ;Waits for and returns character in A OSWRCH: call &10C ;Sends character in A to VDU drivers OSKEY: call &10F ;Time limit in HL, returns character ;in A, carry=0 if timeout occured OSCLI: call &112 ;HL addresses command, terminated by CR 5. The VDU emulator In the default state (*OPT 0) all console output is passed to a software emulator of the BBC Micro's VDU drivers. VDU codes perform a function as similar as possible to those of the BBC Micro, consistent with the hardware and Operating System differences, as follows: VDU 0 Ignored VDU 1 VDU 1,n The following byte is sent to the printer, if enabled (with VDU 2). If the printer is not enabled, the byte is ditched. Any 8-bit value (0-255) can be sent. This works even when the VDU is disabled with VDU 21. VDU 2 Enable the printer. Subsequent characters are sent both to the screen and to the printer. The only control characters sent to the printer are BS (8), HT (9), LF (10), VT (11), FF (12) and CR (13). Bytes which are parameters for VDU commands are not sent to the printer, e.g. VDU 17,65 does not send "A" to the printer. VDU 3 Disables the printer. Cancels the effect of VDU 2. VDU 4 Causes text to be written at the text cursor position in the normal way. Characters are "opaque" and can be positioned only at text coordinates within the text window. The text window scrolls when necessary. VDU 5 Causes text to be written at the graphics cursor position. Characters have a "transparent" background and are plotted according to the current foreground GCOL rules and colour (VDU 127, DEL, is an exception). Characters can be positioned at any graphics coordinate within the graphics window, the top left of the character cell is the reference point; characters are NOT clipped to the window limits (this is a limitation of the Amstrad Operating System). No scrolling takes place. VDU 6 Enables the VDU screen. Cancels the effect of VDU 21. VDU 7 Causes a "beep". VDU 8 Moves the text cursor left one character. If it was at the left edge of the window, it is wrapped to the end of the previous line (RH edge of window). If it was also on the top line of the text window, the window scrolls down (except when in VDU 5 mode). VDU 9 Moves the text cursor right one character. If it was at the right hand edge of the window, it is wrapped to the beginning of the next line (LH edge of window). If it was also on the bottom line of the text window, the window scrolls up (except when in VDU 5 mode). VDU 10 Moves the text cursor down one line. If it was on the bottom line of the text window, the window scrolls up (except when in VDU 5 mode). Scrolling is inhibited if CTRL & SHIFT are both held down. VDU 11 Moves the text cursor up one line. If it was on the top line of the text window, the window scrolls down (except when in VDU 5 mode). VDU 12 This is identical to CLS in BASIC. It clears the text window to the current text background colour and moves the text cursor to the top-left corner of the text window. VDU 13 Moves the text cursor to the left-hand edge of the window, but does not move it vertically. VDU 14 Enter paged mode. Scrolling will stop after each page, unless SHIFT is pressed. VDU 15 Stop paging. Cancels the effect of VDU 14. VDU 16 This is identical to CLG in BASIC. It clears the graphics window using the current background GCOL action and colour. It does not move the graphics cursor. VDU 17 VDU 17,n This is identical to COLOUR n in BASIC. The next byte determines the text colour, see COLOUR for details. VDU 18 VDU 18,a,c This is identical to GCOL a,c in BASIC. The next two bytes determine the GCOL action and colour respectively. VDU 19 VDU 19,L,p,0,0,0 Change the palette to select logical colour L as physical colour p. This command works in a compatible fashion to the BBC Micro but has been extended to give access to the Amstrad's enhanced facilities as follows: VDU 19,-1,p,0,0,0 Select physical colour p as the border colour. VDU 19,L,x+128,y,0,0 Select logical colour L as alternating between Amstrad colour x and Amstrad colour y. VDU 19,-1,x+128,y,0,0 Select the border colour to alternate between Amstrad colour x and Amstrad colour y. The physical colour p is mapped to the BBC Micro's physical colours (0- 15). The Amstrad colours x and y correspond to the 27 colours available from the Amstrad machines. VDU 20 Sets text and graphics colours to their default values (background black, foreground white) and resets the palette. In 4-colour modes set the colours to black, red, yellow and white. VDU 21 Disable VDU output. All VDU commands except 1 and 6 are ignored. If the printer is enabled, VDUs 8,9,10,11,12 and 13 will still be sent to the printer. VDU 22 VDU 22,n This is identical to MODE n in BASIC, except that MODE zeros the value of COUNT whereas VDU 22 does not. VDU 22 also resets all screen driver variables (colours, palette, windows, cursor positions, graphics origin etc.). In particular, VDU 22 performs the actions of VDU 4, VDU 12, VDU 20 and VDU 26. See MODE for further details. VDU 23 Program user-defined graphics characters, enable/disable cursor or write to 6845 CRT controller registers: VDU 23,n,r1,r2,r3,r4,r5,r6,r7,r8 program character n (32-255) VDU 23,1,0;0;0;0; disable cursor VDU 23,1,1;0;0;0; enable cursor VDU 23,0,r,x,0;0;0; write x to 6845 register r VDU 24 VDU 24,leftx;bottomy;rightx;topy; Define graphics window. The coordinates are with respect to the current graphics origin, so users are recommended to precede VDU 24 with VDU 26 to reset the origin first. The coordinates are not checked for valid range. VDU 25 VDU 25,n,x;y; This is identical to PLOT n,x;y; in BASIC. See PLOT for more details. VDU 26 Reset text and graphics windows to their default positions (filling the whole screen), home text cursor, move graphics cursor to 0,0 and reset the graphics origin to 0,0. VDU 27 VDU 27,n Send the next byte to the screen without interpreting it as a control code. Allows graphics characters corresponding to VDU 0-31 and VDU 127 to be displayed. Acts in a similar way to VDU 1 for the printer. VDU 28 VDU 28,leftx,bottomy,rightx,topy Set a text window. The text cursor is moved to the new home position. VDU 29 VDU 29,x;y; Move the graphics origin to the specified coordinates. VDU 30 Home the text cursor, to the top-left hand corner of the text window (or the graphics window, when in VDU 5 mode). VDU 31 VDU 31,x,y Identical to PRINT TAB(x,y); in BASIC. Positions the text cursor according to the next two bytes. The coordinates are with respect to the edges of the current text window. VDU 127 Backspace the cursor by one position and delete the character there. In VDU 5 mode the character is "deleted" by writing character 143 (a solid block) in the current graphics background colour and action. 6. Finally, a reminder that the ~ character (used with PRINT and STR$ to give hexadecimal numbers) can be obtained by pressing CTRL/2. R. T. Russell. 2nd April 1986.

Manual n° 3

This is version 2.30 of BBCBASIC(Z80) for the Amstrad Colour Computers (CPC464, CPC664 and CPC6128). The files supplied are as follows: BBCBASIC.COM The BBC BASIC (Z80) interpreter for Amstrad machines. BBCBASIC.TXT A plain text documentation file for BBC BASIC (Z80). CONVERT.COM A utility for converting .BBC files to/from .BAS files. CRC.COM A program to test the integrity of the supplied files. UNLIST.COM A utility which makes a BBC BASIC program unlistable. CRCKLIST.CRC The data file for CRC.COM. MERGE.BBC A BBC BASIC program for merging program files. SORT.BBC A program using assembler code for a fast string sort. SORTREAL.BBC A program using assembler code for a fast numeric sort. F-????.BBC A set of example programs illustrating file input/output. ANIMAL.BBC An example of a 'learning' program written in BBC BASIC. ANIMAL.DAT The initial data file for ANIMAL.BBC READ.ME This file! To exit BBC BASIC (Z80) type *BYE The Amstrad CP/M version of BBC BASIC (Z80) is made available for free download on the condition that it always be distributed with the above files. BBCBASIC (Z80) and the accompanying files remain the Copyright (C) of R. T. Russell, 1982-2000. Richard RUSSELL, 8th August 2000. Email: richard@rtrussell.co.uk Web: http://www.rtrussell.co.uk/

Manual n° 4

Commandes : AUTO Generate line numbers. DELETE Delete program lines. EDIT Edit a program line. LIST List all or part of program. LISTO Control indentation in LIST. LOAD Load a program into memory. NEW Delete current program & variables. OLD Recover a program deleted by NEW. RENUMBER Renumber the program lines. SAVE Save the current program to disk. CALL Call assembly language routine. CHAIN Load and run a program. CLEAR Clear dynamic variables. CLS Clear the screen. DEF Define a function. DEF PROC Define a procedure. DIM Dimension one or more arrays. END Terminate program and close files. ENDPROC Return from a procedure. FOR Begin a FOR . . . NEXT loop. GOSUB Call a Basic subroutine. GOTO Branch to specified line. IF..THEN Do statement(s) if exp non-zero. LET Assignment. LOCAL Declare variables local to procedure. NEXT End FOR . . . NEXT loop. ON..GOTO Computed GOTO. ON..GOSUB Computed GOSUB. ON ERROR Do statements) on error. PROC Call a procedure. REM Remark REPEAT Begin a REPEAT . . . UNTIL loop. REPORT Print error message for last error. RESTORE Reset data pointer. RETURN Return from subroutine. RUN Run the current program. STOP Stop program and print message. TRACE ON Start trace mode. TRACE OFF End trace mode. UNTIL Terminate loop if exp is non-zero. WIDTH Set terminal width. BPUT Write LS byte of exp to disk file. CLOSE Close disc file. DATA Data for READ statement. INPUT Request input from user. INPUT LINE As INPUT but accept whole line. INPUT# Read data from disk file. OSCLI Pass string to "operating system". PRINT Print data to console. PRINT# Write data to disc file. READ Read data from DATA statements). VDU Send LS byte of exp to console. Functions : ABS(exp) Absolute value of expression. ACS(exp) Arc-cosine of expression, in radians. ASN(exp) Arc-sine of expression, in radians. ATN(exp) Arc-tangent of expression, in radians. COS(exp) Cosine of radian expression. DEG(exp) Value in degrees of radian expression. EXP(exp) e raised to the power of expression. INT(exp) Largest integer less than expression. LN(exp) Natural logarithm of expression. LOG(exp) Base-ten logarithm of expression. PI Returns 3.14159265. RAD(exp) Radian value of expression in degrees. RND[(exp)l RND returns random 32-bit integer. RND(-n) Seeds sequence. RND(0) Repeats last value in RND(1) form. RND(1) Returns number between 0 and 0.999999999 RND(n) Returns random integer between 1 and n. SGN(exp) 1 if exp>0, 0 if exp=0, -1 if exp<0. SIN(exp) Sine of radian expression. SQR(exp) Square root of expression. TAN(exp) Tangent of radian expression. ASC(str) Returns ASCII value of first char of string. CHR$(exp) Returns one-char ASCII string of exp. EVAL(str) Evaluates str as an expression and returns resulting number or string. GET Waits for keypress and returns ASCII value. GET$ Waits for keypress and returns one-char string. INKEY(exp) Waits exp centiseconds for keypress and returns Ascii value. INKEY$(exp) Waits exp centiseconds for keypress and returns one-character string. INSTR(r,s(,nl) Returns position of string s in string r, optionally starting at position n LEFT$(str,exp) Returns leftmost exp characters of string. LEN(str) Returns length of string (0-255). MID$(str,m[,n]) Returns sub-string from position m, of length n or to end. RIGHT$(str,exp) Returns rightmost exp characters of string. STR$[](exp) Returns string representation of exp in decimal (or hex). STRING$(n,str) Returns a string consisting of n copies of str. VAL(str) Returns numeric value of str. BGET#chan Returns a single byte from a disc file. COUNT Number of characters printed since last new line. EOF#chan Returns TRUE if disc file is at its end. ERL Line number of last error. ERR Code of last error. EXT#chan Returns virtual length of disk file. FALSE Returns zero. FNname User-defined numeric or string [(parameter list)] function. GET(port) Returns contents of Z80 port. OPENIN(str) Opens file for input/update and returns channel number. OPENOUT(str) Opens file for output and returns channel number. OPENUP(str) Same as OPENIN. POS Returns current cursor column (LHS=0). TOP Returns first address after end of user’s program. TRUE Returns-1. USR(address) Calls machine-code routine and returns integer. VPOS Returns current cursor line (top line=0). PAGE Memory address of current user’s program. PTR#chan File character pointer. Allows random access. HIMEM Top of memory used by Basic. LOMEM Start address of dynamic variable storage. TIME Elapsed time clock, counts in

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